In text, references should be cited by the names of the authors and the year of publication, e.g. “Nowak and Kowalski (1999) stated that…”; “as previously described (Nowak and Kowalski, 2000; Nowak, 2005)”. When a paper has more than two authors, the first author’s name should be followed with et al. and the year of publication, e.g. Nowak et al., 2002. While references occur that are not identified by the authors’ names and year, use a, b etc. after the year (Nowak et al., 2002a; 2002b).
The list of the papers cited (Literature) must be arranged alphabetically according to the last name of the first author and not numbered. Papers with one only author are listed in chronological order (the earliest first); papers with two authors are listed alphabetically according to the last name of the first author and by the last name of the second author; paper with three or more authors appear as those with two authors and are listed chronologically. When the paper has more than ten authors, give the names of the first ten, followed by “and others”. For citations of books, books chapters, thesis, printed conference proceedings etc. see examples given below.
Please follow the punctuations, brackets, capital letters etc. exactly as shown. Put “and”, not “&” before the last author’s name. Use the proper journal title abbreviations (ISO) as indicated in the PubMed Journal Database.
Books and bookchapters
- Last name Initial., Initial. Last name and Initial. Last Name. Year. Title, edition. City
For example :
- Sambrook J., E.F. Fritsch and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular Cloning; a Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
- Snyder L. and W. Champness. 2003. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
- Funnel B.E. and G.J. Phillips (eds). 2004. Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
- Belfort M., V. Derbyshire, M.M. Parker, B. Cousineau and A.M. Lambowitz. 2004. Mobile introns: pathways and proteins, pp. 761-783. In: Funnel B.E. and G.J. Philips (eds). Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
For 1 author:
Last name Initial. Year. Title. Journal Name volume: pages.
For example Eckhardt T. 1978. A rapid method for identification of plasmid desoxyribonucleic acid in bacteria. Plasmid 1:584-588.
For 2 authors:
Last name Initial. and Initial. Last name. Year. Title. Journal Name volume:pages.
For example Sołyga A. and D. Bartosik. 2004. Entrapment vectors – how to capture a functional transposable element. Pol J. Microbiol 53:139-144.
For 3 – 10 authors:
Last name Initial., Initial. Last name and Initial. Last name. Year. Title. Journal Name volume:pages.
For example Bartosik D., M. Szymanik and J. Baj. 2004. Identification and distribution of insertion sequences of Paracoccussolventivoran s. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:7002-7008.
For more than 10 authors:
Last name Initial., Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name, Initial. Last name and others. Year. Title. Journal Name volume:pages.
For example Roberts R.J., M. Belford, T. Bestor, A.S. Bgagwat, T.A. Bickle, J. Bitinaite, R.M. Blumenthal, S.K. Degtyarey, D.T. Dry den, K. Dybyig and others. 2003. A nomenclature for restriction enzymes. DNA methyl-transferases, homing endonucleases and their genes. NucleicAcids Res. 31:1805-1812.
Articles published in other language
than English – title should be translated to English, the original language should be stated in parenthesis.
Last name Initial. Year. Title. (in original language) Journal Name volume:pages.
For example Bartosik D. 2001. Bacterialplasmidsstability (in Polish). Post. Biochem. 47:138-145.
Last name Initial. Year. PhD Thesis (optional title) Affiliation. City. Country.
For example Szymanik M. 2006. Ph.D. Thesis. Warsaw University . Warsaw. Poland
Conference proceedings (selected cases)
Last name Initial., Initial. Last name and Initial. Last name. Year. Title. Abstracts of Conference name. City, Country, page(s).
For example Dziewit L., M. Jazurek, L. Drewniak, J. Baj and D. Bartosik. 2006. Identification of a novel family of addiction systems. Abstracts of International Plasmid Biology Conference. Plasmid Biology 2006. Fallen Leaf Lake, South Lake Tahoe California. USA. p.163.
Names. Year. Title. WWW address. Access date.
For example Pais V.M., T. Santora and D.B. Rukstalis. 2013. Fournier gangrene. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202889, 2014.08.20.